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Davis, and Sharon R.

Balot, Sara Forsdyke and Edith Foster. Sirks, P.

I: Introduction

Sijpesteijn, K. Ltd, Jahrhundert v. Jahrhundert n. Rudolf Habelt GmbH, Edward Siecienski. Hasselhoff und Meret Strothmann.


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Beck, Vitelli, Hakkert, Strong Western Michigan University. Geuthner, Geschichte d. Sidney Allen. Storin, and Edward J. Habelt, El-Masry [and six others]. Teubner, Hasitzka unter mitarbeit von Hermann Harrauer. Diethart und Klaas A. Band VI, Gesang, Faszikel 2. Millis and Sara Strack and edited by S. Douglas Olson. Most and Leyla Ozbek. Wilson, Fellow and tutor of Lincoln College, Oxford. Iuli Caesaris recensvit brevique adnotatione critica instruxit Renatus Du Pontet. One almost cannot read the excerpt without craving the entire document.

This refers to pages of the first part of C. Louis: M.

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Barthel, , which contains the historical background for the Formula of Concord. There was one more problem though. I am therefore happy to present to you, the reader, this profoundly beautiful confession of the once-powerful Lutheran Saxon prince, Johann Friedrich I. It is extremely difficult to imagine any politician writing something so full of biblical conviction today. The only negative of the Confession I can find is that in one spot it could give the impression of improper Church-State entanglement. But one finds it difficult to fix blame for any such entanglement that may have existed in reality, if the Lutheran princes of the time were even half the kind of man this confession indicates Johann Friedrich was.

May the triune God grant us all such a love for Divine Scripture, and for the Unaltered Augsburg Confession and the other Lutheran Confessions, which are squarely founded on it, and a conviction to match.

This Sunday – Bach’s Johannes-Passion (BWV ) | SingOn, from Sydney University Graduate Choir

I listened obediently when I was told that the Roman Imperial and Royal Majesty 1 and the electors, princes, and estates of the empire had resolved 2 how affairs will proceed in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation with regard to the Christian religion until a council should be held, and that the Imperial Majesty earnestly desires of me that I too would consent to the just-mentioned resolution and subscribe to the same.

Now, I am able to recall that when the most highly esteemed Imperial Majesty drew up the Capitulation, 3 at first he also included an article saying that I was to obligate myself to whatever what would be decided in a council or that I would accept whatever Your Majesty would decree in matters of faith and not be opposed to the same. But when it was humbly announced to Your Majesty that I could not make such an agreement for many fitting reasons having to do with my conscience, and that no threat to body or life would bring me to do so, Your Majesty commanded that the aforementioned article be stricken and did not pursue any further dealings with me with respect to religion, which I also thus received with humble thanksgiving.

And after the Capitulation was formalized in all good faith, no further demands were supposed to be made of me, but I was to be permitted to continue in the religion I had embraced and professed. It is for this reason that formerly my gracious, dear lord father, of blessed memory, 4 and others, out of good and sufficient intelligence and learning, also for their part made us adhere to this Confession many years ago through legitimate ways and means, until a free, Christian, and impartial council should reach a decision.

And also as part of our governance, before and after the Confession, we have had this doctrine taught and preached, and we have known no other way — even as I still know no other way — to have the eternal, imperishable truth of God announced and expounded to our subjects than in this way. Since then I am now firmly convinced of this in my conscience, I owe God this gratitude and obedience in response to this inexpressible grace which he has shown me, namely that I do not fall away from the truth I have come to know and have confessed, the truth of his almighty will, the will he has revealed to all the world through his Word — so great is my desire to inherit eternal salvation and to escape eternal damnation.

But if I were to acknowledge and accept the Interim as something Christian and godly, then I would have to go against my conscience and deliberately and intentionally condemn and disown the Augsburg Confession and that which I have hitherto maintained and believed about the gospel of Jesus Christ in many chief articles of doctrine on which salvation depends, and I would have to approve with my mouth that which I considered in my heart and conscience to be completely and utterly contrary to the holy and divine Scriptures.

Oh, God in heaven, that would be a misuse and horrible blaspheming of your holy name, and it would be like I was trying to deceive and mislead both you on high in your exalted majesty and my secular jurisdiction here below on earth with fancy words, for which I would have to pay dearly, and all too dearly, with my soul. For that is the true sin against the Holy Spirit, concerning which Christ makes clear that it shall never be forgiven, neither in this world nor in the next, that is, into eternity. Since then I am tied up and imprisoned in my conscience according to my perception of its voice and since I know better from the instruction of proven testimonies of Divine Scripture, I therefore ask in all submissiveness and humility, through the mercy of God which he has shown to the entire human race through the incarnation and death of his only and beloved Son, our Savior and Redeemer Jesus Christ, that the Imperial Majesty would not be put out by me for not agreeing to the Interim and instead stubbornly persisting in the Augsburg Confession, and for setting everything else aside and considering only how I might partake of eternal joys after this life of misery and trouble.

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John passion. For his second performance of the Johannes-Passion just one year after the first performance, Bach exchanged the large opening and concluding choruses with two large chorale fantasies and exchanged some of the arias with arias from an earlier but now lost work. Large parts of the contemplating lyrics of the arias were changed in this last version for unknown reasons but with negative effects for the balance of text and music, since the music was not amended to reflect the changed lyrics in this version.

Therefore, it must be assumed that Bach did not approve of these text changes, as he simply ignored them. This shows the version of the Johannes-Passion everyone is so familiar with and we are performing tonight is actually a mixed form of several versions, based on the full score of the last version without the additional instruments added in this version but with inclusion of the flutes not mentioned in the first version and the lyrics of the contemplating pieces of the original version. This has given rise to speculation that the latter was composed in preparation for the former.

Such speculation does not do justice to the greatness of the St John Passion as a work in its own right. I would characterize the St John Passion as an ambitious and adventurous work to which Bach was strongly attached. It is important to understand that while the gospel of St. The St John Passion has a much faster pace than the St Matthew Passion, which has its origin in the different perspectives of the gospel texts.

This cancelled performance is thought to be another planned performance of his St John Passion as Bach started towork on a clean copy of the score for an obviously ultimate version of the St John Passion. But for unknown reasons this score was left unfinished after only 20 pages — right in the middle of the recitative No.

Even when he performed the St John Passion for the last time in , he did not use or complete this unfinished clean copy but used the old score. Only in completes a copist the score fragment using a transcription of the then still existing original score.

It is interesting to note that a particular difficulty occurred over the first performance of the St John Passion. The drama and pathos are mainly contained in the recitatives and major choruses. An interesting fact of the Johannes-Passion is that Bach composed most of the turba choruses as pairs. Always two choruses correspond to each other and are connected by the same musical motif. Most of these chorus pairs are ordered in a symmetrical manner around the Chorale No.

This all gives the Johannes-Passion an unique unifying structure. The simple piety of the faithful is expressed in the chorales which are musical miniatures, frequently with complex harmonies, so typical for Bach and are obviously composed with trained choral singers in mind. This was the musical and spiritual aim of the chorales. Contemplation and identification with the story are also the main themes of the Arias and Ariosos which interpret or comment upon the previous scenes of the passion story.

From the impressive opening chorus, Herr, unser Herrscher Lord, our ruler , the St John Passion is composed at an exalted level. This first chorus fully reflects the spirit of the Johannes-Passion as portrayed in the Gospel of St John: Jesus as ruler of the world who shows us through his passion and remains also in his suffering the confident acting one.

One needs only to hear that deep pulsation in the bass, like the beating of the human heart, above the violins symbolising the movement of time flowing constantly renewed throughout eternity, while towering over everything, the two flutes and the oboes paint the motif of the cross. This opening chorus conveys an epic sense of timelessness but once it is out of the way, Bach throws the listener straight into the middle of the action, with the Evangelist describing how Christ and his disciples go into Gethsemane, while a body of men assembled by the High Priests and Pharisees, primed by Judas, come for him.

The chorus, representing this group, announces that they have come for Jesum von Nazareth Jesus of Nazareth , Christ acknowledges that that is he, and the action is under way. Bach finds particularly expressive music to set the uglier, more violent ideas, especially when enunciated by the mob.

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In the chorus Kreuzige, kreuzige Crucify, crucify he writes a fifty-bar piece on one word, again including a chromatic phrase to indicate the repugnance of the concept. In a similar vein is the great final chorus, Ruht Wohl, ihr heiligen Gebeine Rest well, you holy bones , which conveys a wonderful sense of consolation, almost of lullaby.

Overall, the Johannes-Passion is a very great work, which suggests that the world lost a great deal from the fact that Bach never worked in an environment where opera was part of the music scene.